Dresden green diamond: 41.00 carats, probably from India, earliest history not known. In 1742 by Friedrich August II, Elector of Saxony, bought for 400 000 talers. It is kept in the Grünes Gewölbe in Dresden.
Florentiner or Toscaner: 137.27 carats, Early history surrounded by legends. In 1657 in the possession of the Medici in Florence, In the 18th century in the crown of the Habsburgs, then used as a brooch.
Hopediamond: 45.52 carats, appeared in 1830 on the market and was bought by banker H.Ph. Hope. Probably recut from a stolen stone. Also part of the French crown jewels. Since 1958 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

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Koh-i-Noor: 108,93 carats. Originally in round form with 186 carats owned by Indian monarchs. Acquired in 1739 by the Shah of Persia. Later came into the possession of the British East India Company, which donated it to Queen Victoria in 1850. He was first given a place in the crown of Queen Mary, wife of George V, and later in the crown of Queen Mother Elizabeth. It is kept in the Tower of London.
Nassak: 43.38 carats. Originally more than 90 carats, was located in India in a Shiva temple near Nassak. Acquired by the British in 1818 as a war booty. In 1927 cut in New York. Now in private possession in the United States.
Sancy: 55 carats. Apparently worn by Charles the Bold (around 1470). In 1570 acquired by the French envoy in Turkey, Signeur de Sancy. Since 1906 in the possession of the Astor family in London.
Shah: 88.70 carats. Comes from Iran, has wear boxes, partly polished. Carries three inscriptions with names of rulers. In 1829 donated to czar Nicholas I of Russia. Nowadays in the Kremlin in Moscow.
Tiffany: 128,51 carats. Found in 1878 in the Kimberley mine in South Africa, with a rough weight of 287.42 carats. Acquired by the jewelry company Tiffany in New York. Cut in Paris with 90 facets.
Origin, locations and extraction

Industrial diamond
Diamonds are formed under high pressure at a depth between 140 and 190 kilometres in the earth’s mantle by compression of carbon. They are brought to the earth’s surface by rapid transport by means of explosive volcanoes. The volcanic rock has a characteristic blue colour and is called kimberlite after the place Kimberley in South Africa. In the nineties of the 20th century there was a diamond rush in northern Canada after the discovery of a kimberite pipe with economically recoverable diamonds in Lac de Gras in 1991.

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In addition to deposits in kimber loopt pipes and their immediate surroundings, diamonds also occur in alluvial deposits. In India, the delta of the river Krishna was traditionally the site of alluvial diamonds. Alluvial diamonds are also found in the Sperrgebiet south of Lüderitz on the coast of Namibia and in the adjacent coastal area of South Africa. In these areas, diamonds can be found in a sand layer up to a few metres below the surface. These areas are closed to anyone who has no business there. Part of the diamond is also washed into the Atlantic Ocean and is mined there by diamond fishermen.

High-pressure subduction zones may function as an alternative parent rock for diamonds. In the Beni Bousera massif in northern Morocco, micro diamond associations have been found that point in that direction.

The table below shows an overview of the diamond production since 2006. In 2009 production decreased by about 20% as a result of the credit crisis. Production has not yet recovered to pre-crisis levels. Until 2007 South Africa was the fifth largest producer worldwide, but in that year it was pushed to the sixth position by Canada. In 2016 the average value of a carat rough diamond was US$ 92.50. Diamonds with the highest value per carat were mined in Lesotho, average value over US$ 1000, and in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) this was only US$ 10. The latter country had a share of 17% in global production in volume terms, but in value terms this share was 2%.

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Rough diamonds in kimberlite
The Russian company ALROSA, active in the Republic of Yakutia, is the world’s largest producer of diamonds with 28% of world production. De Beers, which for a long time had a world monopoly on diamonds, is the second player with 20% of production. Rio Tinto is number three with a share of 17%. In Australia Rio Tinto is the largest producer of coloured diamonds in the Argylemine in the Kimberley area. In Angola Catoca is still a major producer, ALROSA has a 32.8% stake in this company.

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